Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Vegetables and Soils from Minjingu Village-Tanzania using WDXRF Technique

Yusuf I. Koleleni, Seriver Tafisa

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2019/v2i330100

Wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer was used to analyze heavy metal concentration in soils and vegetables. The soil and vegetable samples were randomly collected from Minjingu village of Manyara region in Tanzania. The results indicate the soils to be contaminated with heavy metals with mean concentrations of 53±0.4 For Mn, 40±0.2 for Sr, 2059±4.2 for Fe, 760±2.7 for Al, 12±0.3 for Cs and 4±0.04 for Ni in mg/kg which was above the Maximum Tolerable Limits (MTLs). Except Cl was below MDL. While vegetables recorded the mean concentrations of 60±1.2 for Mn, 68±0.1 for Sr, 620±2.36 for Fe, 284±1,13 for Al, 56±0.5 for Cs, 13±0.1 for Ni and 714±0.7 for Cl in mg/kg. The reference and experimental results of soil and vegetables revealed that the optimized machine has given the best results, where the experimental data was very close to the reference values The reference material of soil 7 and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 395 for vegetables shows the deviation of less than 2%.The Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) for vegetables and soil of the WDXRF spectrometer was obtained under low back ground for different matrix effects. There were high correlation coefficient of heavy metals in soils and vegetables at 99% level. The findings indicate that Minjingu soils and grown vegetables were highly contaminated with heavy metals mainly from soils and polluted air, at levels able to pose detrimental health effects to the consumers. Thus need of regular monitoring of the grown vegetables around phosphate mines is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Open Access Original Research Article

Matched Filter Based Detection over Time Varying Fading Channels with Reduced Complexity

Mohd Israil

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2019/v2i330103

Challenges in high speed data transmission technology over time varying fading channels is addressed in this paper. More precisely, the signal processing at the receiver side has to be analyzed for such systems, as it is well known that the mobile radio channels are characterized by frequency selective fast fading is typically introduced error in the received signal. Thus, the performance of the receiver severely degraded because of such factors. Specifically, this paper deals with the detection using a matched filter followed by low weight near maximum likelihood detector (NMLD) for the application of digital signal processing in outdoor vehicular radio environments. Nearly Maximum Likelihood Detection depends on the length of the stored vectors as well as depends on the numbers of the stored vector. In [1] complexity is reduced by reducing the stored vectors, in this paper same NMLD used but the complexity of the matched filter is reduced by some variance. Finally, the bit error rate (BER) is measured with signal to noise ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Indoor and Outdoor Background Ionizing Radiation Level in School of Marine Technology, Burutu, Delta State, Nigeria

Oghenevovwero E. Esi, Ovie Edomi, Peter O. Odedede

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2019/v2i330104

The ionizing radiation has the tendency of causing damage to man and its environments, hence the assessment of indoor and outdoor background ionizing radiation level in Delta State School of Marine Technology, Burutu, Delta State, Nigeria, was carried out using well calibrated and tested radiation meter (Digilert 100). The study was done in a period of ten calendar months. The purpose of this study is to obtain baseline data for indoor and outdoor Background Ionizing Radiation (BIR) level and health effect on man and the environment. For the indoor and outdoor measurement, readings were taken in three consecutive times in one location at a height of 1 meter above the ground for each point. The geographical positioning system (GPS) was equally employed in determining the coordinates of the area. The results from BIR measurement revealed that indoor readings range from 0,009 mRhr-1 to 0,019 mRhr-1 with a mean value of 0,015 mRhr-1 and for the outdoor ranges 0,010 mRhr-1 to 0,020 mRhr-1 with a mean value of 0,014 mRhr-1. The radiation health parameters calculated, for dose rate and Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE) have their mean values to be 1,135 mGyr-1 and 1,035 mGyr-1 for indoor and 0,635 mSvyr-1 and 0,145 mSvyr-1 for outdoor respectively. But the mean values of Excess Lifetime Cancer Risks (ELCR) for indoor and outdoor are 1,729 and 0,394 respectively. The deviation in BIR level and its radiological parameters are attributed to oil and gas activities in the study areas. The implication is that the area is radiologically unhealthy, the effect may not be significant but long term exposure may be dangerous. Therefore, it is imperative for radiation protection agencies to swing into regulatory action and there should be monitoring of the environment in order to reduce pollution.

Open Access Review Article

On the Role of Squared Neutron Number in Reducing Nuclear Binding Energy in the Light of Electromagnetic, Weak and Nuclear Gravitational Constants – A Review

U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2019/v2i330102

With reference to authors recently proposed three virtual atomic gravitational constants and nuclear elementary charge, close to stable mass numbers, it is possible to show that, squared neutron number plays a major role in reducing nuclear binding energy. In this context, Z=30 onwards, ‘inverse of the strong coupling constant’, can be inferred as a representation of the maximum strength of nuclear interaction and 10.09 MeV can be considered as a characteristic nuclear binding energy coefficient. Coulombic energy coefficient being 0.695 MeV, semi empirical mass formula - volume, surface, asymmetric and pairing energy coefficients can be shown to be 15.29 MeV, 15.29 MeV, 23.16 MeV and 10.09 MeV respectively. Volume and Surface energy terms can be represented with (A-A2/3-1)*15.29 MeV. With reference to nuclear potential of 1.162 MeV and coulombic energy coefficient, close to stable mass numbers, nuclear binding energy can be fitted with two simple terms having an effective binding energy coefficient of  [10.09-(1.162+0.695)/2] = 9.16 MeV. Nuclear binding energy can also be fitted with five terms having a single energy coefficient of 10.09 MeV. With further study, semi empirical mass formula can be simplified with respect to strong coupling constant.