Open Access Short Research Article

Theoretical Determination of the Mass Radii of the Nucleons and Heavier Subatomic Particles

Ikechukwu I. Udema

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2020/v3i430125

Background: The literature contains numerous values of nucleon charge radii with greater interest in proton. The mean square negative radii are reported for the neutron, the scientific relevance notwithstanding. Only in very few instances was the mass radius of the nucleon investigated.

Methods: Theoretical and computational methods.

Objectives: The objectives of this research are to derive, based mainly on classical model, the equation of the radii of nucleons and other subatomic particles heavier than the nucleons and determine by calculation based on the equation the radii of such particles, and elucidate why results may be different from literature values.

Results and Discussion: The results showed expectedly that the mass radii of nucleons and heavier subatomic particles are longer than what seemed to be the preferred proton charge radius. The lengths of the calculated radii increase with increase in rest mass of the subatomic particles whose mass must be ³ the mass of any nucleon

Conclusion: The equation of the mass radius of any nucleon and heavier subatomic particles was derived. Expectedly, the radii differ on the basis of differences in masses of the particles. The difference in mass radii as calculated in this research and reported charge radii in the literature may be due to electron capture leading to greater number of elastic collision with resulting neutrons. Two particles of widely different mass possessing different charge must interact attractively or repulsively if they possess similar charges. Otherwise the deflection of beta–rays and similar particles in an electromagnetic field would be impossible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Group Work in Addressing the Misconceptions of Light

Sangay Wangchuk, Tandin Penjor

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 11-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2020/v3i430126

Physics is science that determines the living and life styles of the people. However, it has many misconceptions in the concepts. In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method in addressing the Class IX student’s misconceptions about light is investigated. The explanatory sequential mixed method was used for the study. It was carried out in one of the Middle Secondary School [MSS] under Trashigang district. The sample of this study consisted of 42 Class IX students and 5 science teachers. The data collection was done using multiple choice questions as pre-test and post-test with explanations. The semi-structured interview was conducted to support the quantitative findings.

The data obtained indicated that the students in the experimental group were more successful in addressing the misconception of light concept than the control group. The independent t-test result showed the significant difference in terms of mean score p<0.05 in the post test result. The result obtained from the study rejects the null hypothesis. The findings confirm that the group work is effective in addressing the misconceptions of light comparing to traditional method of teaching and learning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristic Variation of Ground Heat Flux and Net Radiation at Tropical Station in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

A. Usman, B. B. Ibrahim, L. A. Sunmonu

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 35-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2020/v3i430127

Characteristic variation of ground heat flux and net radiation enhances the understanding of the significance of indicated trends of variability to everyday life and factors that might be responsible for such variations. This research work critically analyses some specific days with field data over grass-covered surface at Ile-Ife, Nigeria between ground heat flux and net radiation. For the field observations, an instrumented meteorological mast was set up at an experimental site (7°33N, 4°35E) located at Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria for a period of two weeks (31st May-14th June, 2013). The soil heat flux, net radiation and soil temperature from the soil heat flux plate; an all-wave net radiometer, and soil thermometer were recorded every 10 seconds and averaged over 2 minutes interval. The sampled data was stored in the data logger (Campbell Scientific, Model CR10X) storage module. After the removal of spurious measurement values (Quality Assurance and Quality Control), the data stored was further reduced to 30 minutes averages using the Microcal Origin (version 7.0) data analysis software. The results showed that the measured ground heat flux, HGM during the daytime increases until 1400 hrs with maximum value of about 136.86 Wm-2 and minimum value of about -72.87 Wm-2 at 0830 hrs (DOY 156). The measured net radiation, Rn value of 649.65 Wm-2 observed at 1400 hrs (DOY 156), represented the maximum value for the entire period of the study. -10.75 Wm-2 value observed at1800 hrs (DOY 154), represented the minimum value for the entire period of the study due to the cloudy condition of the sky which reduces the amount of incoming solar radiation reaching the earth surface.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hawking Radiations of Kerr-Newman Black Hole in de Sitter Spacetime by Hamilton-Jacobi Method

M. Ilias Hossain, M. Jakir Hossain

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 43-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2020/v3i430128

Incorporating Parikh and Wilczek’s opinion Hawking radiations of Kerr-Newman-de Sitter (KNdS) black hole has been investigated by Hamilton-Jacobi method. We have assumed the space time background as dynamical, energy and angular momentum as conserved incorporating the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles. We have shown that the massive particle tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Time Factor on the Battery Voltage State of Charge from Foot Beats Piezoelectric System

Godwin Chukwunonyelum Nworji, Uche V. Okpala, Ngozi Agatha Okereke, Peter Uchenna Okoye

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 53-64
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2020/v3i430129

Aim: The study examined the effect of time on amount of voltage generated in a foot beat electricity generating system stored in a battery.

Study Design: A system made of piezoelectric materials was designed such that the foot beats of dancers on a platform would cause a mechanical deformation that would lead to conversion of mechanical energy due to pressure from the foot beats to electrical energy; and can be stored in a rechargeable lead acid battery for future use.

Place and Duration of Study: Awka Anambra State, Nigeria, between November 2018 and April 2020.

Methodology: A sheet of plywood measuring 300 mm x 300 mm x 3 mm thick was placed on a hard wooden board of 300 mm x 300 mm x 25 mm thick where twelve piezoelectric sensors were connected in series with foam spring inserted as separators and to aid in returning after deformation. As the dancers step on the platform, multimeter was used to take the voltage and current readings, while Lead acid rechargeable battery could be connected at the output point to store energy generated in the system and or Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Universal Serial Bus (USB) outputs. A stop clock was also used to take the time.

Results: The study revealed that it would require 901 seconds for a 50kg dancer to increase a unit voltage state of charge in a battery. It also found that it would require 749 seconds for a 60 kg dancer; and 595 seconds for an 80kg dancer respectively to increase the same 1-unit voltage state of charge in a battery. The study showed that the voltage in the battery would continue to increase until the battery is fully charged at which point it is expected that there would no longer be any increase in charge in the battery irrespective of increase in the number of foot beats or time.

Conclusion: The result implies that the charge in battery caused by pressure from the foot beats is subject to the maximum voltage capacity of the battery in the system. Likewise, the amount of time and number of foot beats required to add a unit voltage state of charge in a battery in the system is subject to the applied pressure from the foot beats. In view of this, the study craves for popularisation of this technology through large scale research supported by government, corporate organisations or international organisations and institutions that will support new products development in the building and construction industry as it is the case in India and other developed countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Distribution of Radiofrequency Intensities from the Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV) Broadcasting Transmitters in Kampala Metropolitan; Uganda

Peter Opio, Akisophel Kisolo, Tumps W. Ireeta, Willy Okullo

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 65-78
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2020/v3i430130

This study presents the modeling of the distribution of RF intensities from the Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV) broadcasting transmitter in Kampala metropolitan. To  achieve this, the performance evaluation of the different path loss propagation models and envisaging the one most suitable for Kampala metropolitan was done by comparing the path loss model values with the measured field Reference Signal Received  Power (RSRP) values. The RSRP of the DTTV broadcasting transmitter were measured at operating frequencies of 526 MHz, 638 MHz, 730 MHz and 766 MHz using the Aaronia  Spectran HF-6065 V4 spectrum analyzer, Aaronia AG HyperLOG 4025 Antenna at 1.5 m and 2.5 m heights, Aaronia GPS Logger, real time Aaronia MCS spectrum-analysis-software and   a T430s Lenovo Laptop. On comparing the measured path loss values with the various  path loss prediction model values, results showed that Egli and Davidson models are the  most accurate and reliable path loss prediction models for the distribution of DTTV RF  intensities in Kampala metropolitan, since their Root Mean Square Error values were the least for both routes.