Open Access Minireview Article

Effect of Radiation on Germanium Doped SiO2 Fibres

I. Hossain, A. N. H. Yaakob, H. Wagiran

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 12-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2021/v5i130153

We report comparative effect of radiation on Germanium incapacitated Optical fibres and commercially available TLD-100. The experiments were carried out using Siemens linear accelerator (LINAC) Primus Multileaf Collimator (MLC) 3339 to deliver photon and electron beams. The Harshaw model 3500 TLD reader with WinREMS software were used in this experiment. Both media were irradiated with 6 x106 eV electrons and 6 x106 volts photons beam. We found a good linearity for TL dose in the range from 20 to 240 mGy. Comparative studies of these compounds indicate that the TL responses using photon and electron irradiation are similar and the average intensity is enhanced by about 1.30 times in electrons than those for photon irradiation. The information of the mini review report of this paper presents in valuable for clinical linear accelerators applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis for Conservative and Non-conservative f(R, T) Gravity Models

Diyadin Can, Ertan Güdekli

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2021/v5i130152

As it is known that General Theory of Relativity does not explain the current acceleration of the universe, so there are many attempts to generalize this theory in order to explain the cosmic acceleration without introducing some dark components such as the Dark Energy. Because of the crowd of models in literature, a need to check the models according to some criteria arises. In this study, we analyze two classes of models by means of energy condition restrictions and illustrate the analysis of those classes by graphical simulations. We consider the conservative and non-conservative cases of two classes of  models to perform the analysis. The results of the viability of the classes are discussed and it is found that the value of the Hubble constant has no effect on the viability of the models. Focusing on some general classes for the models, we restrict them by means of the so-called energy conditions the energy-momentum tensor on physical grounds. Besides, we find numerical values for coefficients of those classes of models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design Analysis of 7.5KW Stand Alone Solar Photovoltaic Power System for an Intermediate Household

Rilwanu Bello, Taufiq Suleiman, Usman Atiku Kende, Mohammed Abulrasheed

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2021/v5i130154

Aim: Design Analysis of 7.5KW Stand-alone Solar Photovoltaic Power System for an Intermediate Household.

Methodology: A design analysis of standalone 7.5KW PV system was carried out using PV modeling equations based on load estimated. The analyzed data of the solar photovoltaic components was used to determine the estimated output power of 7.5KW. Therefore, a number of modeling equations and methodologies for designing a PV system based on application have been developed and simplified in order to ensure the optimum performance of the system. The analyzed solar powered 7.5KW system was achieved by designing 24 solar panels of 335W each, 16 deep cycle battery of 200A each, and a pulse width modulation (PWM) charge controller of 60A to monitor the output of the battery for safety operation. The battery will be connected to the inverter circuit (DC-AC) to generate 220V alternating current in its output via a step-up transformer. In this paper, design analysis of a standalone PV system enables of producing power to a household with approximate consumption of 7.5KW was conducted.  

Results: The standalone PV system along with the cost implications was analysed and designed. In this analysis a sequential design plan of an independent standalone solar powered photovoltaic structure was analysed and overviewed to supply continuous and uninterrupted power to a typical utility with maximum power consumption of 7500W (7.5KVA). The calculated/computed values of all the components yield a result that can serve the purpose. Based on the design analysis, the result implies that the estimate consumption of 7.5KW in a day requires 24 PV panels of 335 Watts each, 16 (12V, 200Ah) batteries, 10KW inverter, (12V, 60A) charge controller and copper wire of cross-sectional area (1.688mm2) for installation.  

Conclusion: In Nigeria, to generate a solar power of 7.5KVA requires almost $15,585.70 which is equivalent to N 5,965,426.66.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design Analysis and Implementation of Automatic Fire Extinguishing System Using ATmega16 Microcontroller as Control

Rilwanu Bello, Bashir Abdullahi Sama, Nura Gambo, Yusuf M. Ahijo

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2021/v5i130155

Aim: The aim of this research is to design an automatic fire detection and control.

Methodology: The system consists of two sensors, microcontroller, buzzer and a pump/sprinkler. An LM35 integrated chip has been used as temperature sensor while MQ-2 gas sensor has been used as smoke sensor. All sensors are connected to the microcontroller through an input/output port. The controlling software for the whole system was designed in C programming language. The popular high performance, low power 8-bit microcontroller from the AVR family microcontrollers has been used. The system was finally tested by introducing fire parameters (smoke and temperature) close to the smoke and temperature detectors respectively. When the parameters go above the set level in the detectors, audio alarm, light indicator and pump/sprinkler were activated. The measured temperature of the system was compared with the reference temperature.  

Results: The result showed that there was a mean deviation of 1.550C between the measured values and reference values which served as the control.  

Conclusion: The constructed system is compact and easy to install. The constructed fire control device is quite cheap and affordable to every category of person.

Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Study of Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) Layer on the Performance of Methyl-Ammonium Tin Iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) Perovskite Solar Cells Using SCAPS

Faruk Sani, S. Abdullahi

Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajr2p/2021/v5i130156

Substrates used in perovskite solar cells as front contact are usually transparent conductive oxide (TCO) to allow light to pass through the device. The dominating TCO employed in perovskite solar cells are indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). However, it is imperative to investigate alternative TCOs due to the scarcity of indium metal, relatively low electrical conductivity and high leakage current in ITO and FTO. In this study, simulation has been carried out using Solar Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS) to investigate the efficiency of methyl-ammonium tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) based solar cells including various TCOs such as boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO), molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO). TCO parameters such as thickness, donor concentration and operating temperature were varied to study their influence on device performance. The best device performance was achieved using MoO3 with power conversion efficiency of 25.83 % and Jsc, Voc and FF of 32.44 mA/cm2, 0.979 V and 81.38 % respectively. The work shows the potential of fabricating an improved CH3NH3SnI3 perovskite solar cell with MoO3 as front contact.